1. This was disaster on cosmic scale.
A. modest B. commercial C. huge D. national
2. New secretaries came and went with monotonous regularity.
A. amazing B. depressing C. predictable D. dull
3.A person’s wealthis often in inverse proportion to their happiness.
A. equal B. certain C.large D. opposite
4. His professional career spanned 16 years.
A. started B. changed C. lasted D. moved
5. The symptoms of the disease manifested themselves ten days later.
A. eased B. improved C.relieved D. appeared
6. The group does not advocate the use of violence.
A. limit B. support C.regulate D. oppose
7. She felt that she had done her good deedfor the day.
A. actB. homework C. justice D. model
8. Some of the larger birds can remain stationary in the air for several minutes.
A. motionless B. silent C. seated D. true
9. There was an inclination to treat geography as a less importantsubject.
A. point B. result C.finding D. tendency
10. His stomach felt hollow with fear.
A. sincere B. respectful C. empty D. terrible
11. The committee was asked to render a report on the housing situation.
A. copy B. publish C.summarize D. furnish
12. That uniform makes the guards look absurd.
A. serious B. beautiful C. impressive D. ridiculous
13. The department deferred the decision for six months.
A. put off B. arrived at C. abided by D. protested against
14. The original experiment cannot be exactly duplicated .
A. invented B. reproduced C. designed D. reported
15. The country was torn apart by strife.
A. conflict B. poverty C. war D. economy
Experience the World in 3D Game
Ever wondered how your cat or dog sees theworld? Now you can look through their eyes with the first 3D game thatrecreates the vision of different species based on scientific evidence.
The online simulation, created by the French3D design company Dassault Systèmes, with the guidanceof veterinary ophthalmologist (眼科专家)DidierSchmidt-Morand, mimics (模仿)the vision of five animals – cats dogs, rats, hawks and bees – as aplayer steers them through Place Vend洀攀 in Paris.
Due to differences in field of view, colourperception and night vision, for example, sight can be drastically differentfrom species to species. "In terms of performance, eyes are as variable asdifferent models of cars," says Schmidt-Morand.
The game was created by using existingvirtual models of the square then applying effects based on descriptions ofeach animal's vision. Dassault's 3D software allows a scene to be modified byadding blur or changing the colours, angle of vision and depth of field.
Although it was easy to recreate visioninferior to that of humans – cats and dogs, forexample, have trouble distinguishing shades of red –replicating features that we are unable to see was a challenge. Hawks have moredetailed vision than ours, whereas dogs are better at seeing movement and havea wider field of view. "We used virtual cameras to precisely simulatelarger viewing angles but the result made people nauseous(令人作呕的)," says Schmidt-Morand. "So we tweaked(微调) the model to give a sense of the wider view without sticking toreality."
The rat's view also departs from reality:because they are near-sighted, everything more than 15 centimetres away is ablur, so they typically move close to walls to help them navigate. "A ratwould never throw itself into the middle of an open area," saysSchmidt-Morand. The simulation for this animal is supplemented with a map inthe top right corner to help determine the rat's position: because of theirlimited eyesight, most landmarks are obscured.
The game is intended as an educationalresource and players can discuss their experience with others through communityfeatures on the website. If there is interest from schools and zoos, the teamhopes to recreate the vision of more animals.
16. The game developed by Dassault Systemesis the first 3D game recreating the vision of different species .
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
17.Dassault’s3Dsoftware takes different perspectives like color perception and angle of visioninto account .
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
18.The animals’viewsin the software are the same as those in reality .
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
19. Dogs have larger viewing angles thanhumans .
A. RightB. Wrong C. Notmentioned
20.It takes the team the longest time torecreate the rat’s view because they’re near-sighted .
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
21.The team is working on recreating thevision of more animals .
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
22.Schmidt-Morand’sfavorite animal is cat .
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
23. Paragraph 2 ___B________
24. Paragraph 3 ______C_____
25. Paragraph 4 _____D______
26. Paragraph 5 ____F_______
A. Rising of sea levels
B. Impact of burning fossil fuels
C. Fast feedbacks
D. Slow feedbacks
E. Unpredictability of feedback processes
F.A prediction of future climate change
27. Arctic ice has never been melting so fastin ___D________.
28. Melting of snow and ice enables sunlightto reach ____A_______.
29. Zeebe came up with his future climateprediction by analyzing _____E______.
30.After fossil fuels are used up, globalwarming will continue for _____B______.
A. the exposed ground
B. a very long time
C. the extra heat
D. recorded history
E. previously published studies
F. rapid exaggeration of impacts
第一篇The Northern Lights
The sun is stormy and has it own kind ofweather. It is so hot and active that even the Sun’sgravity cannot hold its atmosphere in check! Energy flows away from the Suntoward the Earth in a stream of electrified particles that move at speedsaround a million miles per hour. These particles are called plasma, and thestream of plasma coming from the Sun is called the solar wind. The more activethe Sun, the stronger the solar wind.
The solar wind constantly streams toward theEarth, but don’t worry because a protective magneticfields surrounds our planet. The same magnetic field that makes your compasspoint north also steers the particles from the Sun to the north and southpoles. The charged particles become trapped in magnetic belts around the Earth.When a large blast of solar wind crashes into the Earth’s magnetic field first gets squeezed and then the magnetic fieldlines break and reconnect.
The breaking and reconnecting of the magneticfield lines can cause atomic particles called electrons trapped in the belts tofall into the Earth’s atmosphere at the poles. As theelectrons fall into the Earth, they collide with gas molecules in theatmosphere, creating flashes of light in the sky.
Each atmospheric gas glows a different color.Oxygen and nitrogen glows red and green and nitrogen glows violet-purple. Asthese various colors glow and dance in the night sky, they create the NorthernLights and the Southern Lights.
Watching auroras(北极光)is fun and exciting, but normally you can only see them in places far northlike Alaska and Canada. The movement of the aurora across the sky is usuallyslow enough to easily follow with your eyes but they can also pulsate(跳动), flicker(闪烁), or even move like waves.During solar maximum, 5 auroras are seen as far south as Florida, even Mexico!Aurorasoften seem to be very close to the ground, but the lowest aurora is still about100 kilometers above the ground, a distance much higher than clouds are formedor airplanes can fly. A typical aurora band can be thousands of kilometerslong, a few hundred kilometers high, but only a few hundred meters thick.
We hope you are able to travel to far-northplaces like the Arctic Circle and see the Northern Lights at least once duringyour lifetime. We know you will never forget it!
31. The solar wind comes into being as aresult of______
A. disappearance of the Sun’s gravity.
B. unpredictable weather of the Sun.
C. fast flow of energy away from the Sun.
D. a stream of particles being blown away.
32. What happens when solar wind comes to theEarth?
A. A protective magnetic field is formed atthe same time.
B. It is trapped in magnetic belts around theEarth.
C. It destroys the protective magnetic fieldsurrounding the Earth.
D. It breaks magnetic field lines and doessevere damage to the ???
33. The Northern Lights are createdwhen______
A. atomic particles fall to the Earth and collidewith atmospheric gases.
B. the magnetic field lines fail toreconnect.
C. the electrons falling to the Earth shinein different colors.
D. oxygen and nitrogen are separated from theatmospheric gases.
34. Which of the following statements is trueof the Northern Lights?
A. Their movement is slow enough to be observedwith the eyes.
B. People cannot see them unless traveling toAlaska or Canada
C. They are very close to the ground.
D. They are very long and thick.
35. What is the author’s tone toward the Northern Lights?
第二篇Eye-tracker Lots You Drag and Drop Files with a Glance
Bored of using a mouse? Soon you'll be ableto change stuff on your computer screen – and then moveit directly onto your smartphone or tablet(平板电脑) –with nothing more than a glance.
A system called EyeDrop uses a head-mountedeye tracker that simultaneously records your field of view so it knows whereyou are looking on the screen. Gazing at an object – aphoto, say – and then pressing a key, selects thatobject. It can then be moved from the screen to a tablet or smartphone just byglancing at the second device, as long as the two are connected wirelessly.
"The beauty of using gaze to supportthis is that our eyes naturally focus on content that we want to acquire,"says Jayson Turner, who developed the system with colleagues at LancasterUniversity, UK.
Turner believes EyeDrop would be useful totransfer an interactive map or contact information from a public display toyour smartphone or for sharing photos.
A button needs to be used to select theobject you are looking at otherwise you end up with the "Midastouch"(点石成金) effect, whereby everything you lookat gets selected by your gaze, says Turner. "Imagine if your mouse clickedon everything it pointed at," he says.
Christian Holz, a researcher inhuman-computer interaction at Yahoo Labs in Sunnyvale, California, says thesystem is a nice take on getting round this fundamental problem of usinggaze-tracking to interact. "EyeDrop solves this in a slick (灵巧的)way by combining it with input on the touch devices we carry withus most of the time anyway and using touch input as a clutchingmechanism," he says. "This now allows users to seamlessly(无缝地) interact across devices far and close in a very naturalmanner."
While current eye-trackers are rather bulky,mainstream consumer devices are not too far away. Swedish firm Tobii isdeveloping gaze-tracking technology that can be installed in laptops andtablets and is expected to be available to buy next year. And the Google Glassheadset is expected to include eye-tracking in the future.
Turner says he has also looked at how contentcan be cut and pasted or drag-and-dropped using a mix of gaze and taps on atouchscreen. The system was presented at the Conference on Mobile andUbiquitous Multimedia in Sweden, last week.
36. The eye-tracker technology enables usto______
A. change our computer screen.
B. focus on anything that interests us.
C. get a smartphone connected wirelessly.
D. move an object from screen with a glance.
37. Why is a button needed?
A. To minimize the cost of EyeDrop.
B. To choose as many objects as possible.
C. To make EyeDrop different from others.
D. To select what we want.
38. The word “this” in Paragraph 6 refers to_______
A. application of gaze-tracking inhuman-computer interaction.
B. interaction between human and computer.
C. combination of gaze-tracking with input ontouch devices.
D. generalization of EyeDrop system.
39. Which of the following statement is trueof eye-trackers for consumer devices.
A. They are costly.
B. They are available.
C. They are installed in Google Glassheadset.
D. They are expected to come out soon.
40. What is Turner likely to study next?
A. How to drag and drop with gaze and taps.
B. How to present the system in public.
C. How to get touch screen involved.
D. How to cut and paste content from a publicdisplay.
第三篇A New Strategy to Overcome Breast Cancer
Post-menopausal(绝经后)womenwho walk for an hour a day can cut their chance of breast cancer significantly,a study has suggested. The report , which followed 73,000 women for 17 years, foundwalking for at least seven hours a week lowered the risk of the disease. TheAmerican Cancer Society team said this was the first time reduced risk wasspecifically linked to walking. UK experts said it was more evidence thatlifestyle influenced cancer risk.
A recent poll for the charity Ramblers aquarter of adults walk for no more than an hour a week, but being active isknown to reduce the risk of a number of cancers. This study, published inCancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers&Prevention, followed 73.615 women out of97,785 aged 50-74 who had been recruited by the American Cancer Society between1992 and 1993,so it could monitor the incidence of cancer in the group.
They were asked to complete questionnaires ontheir health and on how much time they were active and participating inactivities such as walking, swimming and aerobics(有氧运动)andhow much time they spent sitting watching television or reading. They completedthe same questionnaires at two-year intervals between 1997 and 2009.Of thewomen,47% said walking was their only recreational acivity. Those who walkedfor at least seven hours per week had a 14% lower risk of breast cancercompared to those who walked three or fewer hours per week.
Dr.Alpa Patel, a senior epidemiologist at theAmerican Cancer Society in Atlanta,Georgia,who led the study, said:”Given that more than 60% of women report some daily walking, promotingwalking as a healthy leisure-time activity could be an effective strategy forincreasing physical activity amongst post-menopausal women. We were pleased tofind that without any other recreational activity, just walking one hour a daywas associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in these women.””More strenuous(紧张的)and longer activitieslowered the risk even more.”
Baroness Delyth Morgan, chief executive ofBreast Cancer Campaign, said:”This study adds furtherevidence that our lifestyle choices can play a part in influencing the risk ofbreast cancer and even small changes incorporate into our normal day-to-dayactivity can make a difference.”
She added:”We knowthat the best weapon to overcoming breast cancer is the ability to stop itoccurring in the first place. The challenge now is how we turn these
findings into action and identify othersustainable lifestyle changes that will help us prevent breast cancer.”
41. All of the following factors relating tocancer risk were mentioned in the passage EXCEPT________
A. breathing exercise
B. regular walking
C. recreational activity
D. lifestyle choices
42. It can be inferred from Dr. Alpa Patel’s study that____.
A. women have fewer chances of physicalactivity
B. daily walking could cut the chance of breastcancer
C. leisure-time activity is not associatedwith cancer risk
D. walking is not recommended for women withbreast cancer
43. Dr. Alpa Patel was_____.
A. head of the survey study
B. chief editor of Cancer Epidemiology
C. chair of the American Cancer Society
D. chief executive of Breast Cancer Campaign
44. Which of the following statements is trueaccording to the passage?
A. Most women take walking as their onlyrecreational activity.
B. The study aims to track the healthconditions of its subjects.
C. Walking was the only recreationalacitivity for about half of the women
D. Irregular walking increased the risk ofbreast cancer in post-menopausal women
45. The word “sustainable”in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to
WronglyConvicted Man and His Accuser Tell Their Story
NEW YORK,NY, January 5,2010. St.Martin’s Press has announced the release of the paperback edition ofPicking Cotton, a remarkable true story of what novelist John Grisham calls an “account of violence, rage, redemption(救赎)，and, ultimately forgiveness.”
The story began in 1987, in Burlington, NorthCarolina, with the rape of a young while college student named JenniferThompson. During her ordeal, Thompson swore to herself that she would neverforget the face of her rapist, a man who climbed through the window of herapartment and assaulted her brutally.____F____(46)When the police asked her ifshe could identify the assilant(袭击者)from a book of mugshots, she picked one that she was sure was correct, and later she identifiedthe same man in a lineup.
Based on her convincing eye withnesstestimony, a 22-year-old black man named Ronald Cotton was sentenced to prisonfor two life terms. Cotton’s lawyer appealed thedecision, and by the time of the appeals hearing, evidence had come to lightsuggesting that the real rapist might have been a man who looked very likeCotton, an imprisoned criminal named Bobby Poole.__B____(47)Jennifer Thompsonlooked at both men face to face, and once again said that Ronald Cotton was theone who raped her.
Eleven years later, DNA evidence completelyexonerated(证明……清白)Cotton and just as unequivocally(明确地) convicted Poole, who confessed to the crime. _____E___(48) “The man I was so sure I had never seen in my life was the man whowas inches from my throat, who raped me, who hurt me, who took my spirit away,who robbed me of my soul,” she wrote. “And the man I had identified so surely on so many occasions wasabsolutely innocent.”
____A___(49) Remarkably both were able to put this tragedy behind them, overcome the racial barrier that divided them, and write a book, which they have subtitled “Our memoir（回忆录） of injustice and redemption（拯救）.”
Nevertheless, Thompson says, she still lives “with constant pain that my profound mistake cost him so dearly__C____(50)”
A. Jennifer Thompson decided to meet Cottonand apologize to him personally.
B. Many criminals are sent to prison on thebasis of accurate testimony by eye withnesses.
C. I cannot begin to imagine what would havehappened had my mistaken identification occurred in a capital case
D. Another trial was held.
E. Thompson was shocked and devastated.
F. During the attack, she made an effort tomemorize eveery detail of his face, looking for scars, tattoos(纹身)，or other identifying marks.
Musical Training Can Improve CommunicationSkills
American scientists say musical trainingseems to improve communication skills and Language retardation(延迟).They found that developing musical skill involves the_________(51)process in the brain as learning how to speak .The scientists believe thatcould _________ (52)children with learning disabilities .
Nina Krauss is a neurobiologist atNorthwestern University in lllinois .She says Musical training _________(53)putting together different kinds of information, such as hearing music,looking at musical notes, touching an instrument and watching other musicians.The ________ (54) is not much different from learning how to speak .Both involvedifferent senses .
She further explains musical training andlearning to _________ (55)each make us think about what we are doing .She saysspeech and music ________ (56) through a structure of the nervous system calledthe brain stem .The brain stem ________ (57) our ability to hear .Untilrecently, experts have though the brain stem could not be developed orchanged.________ (58) Professor Krauss and her team found that musical trainingcan improve a person’s brain stem activity.
The study involved involved individuals withdifferent levels of musical ________ (59).They were asked to wear an electricaldevice that measures _________ (60) activity. The individuals wore theelectrode while they watched a video of someone speaking and a person playing amusical instrument---the cello(大提琴).Professor Krausesays cello have sound qualities similar _________ (61)some of the sounds thatare important with speech .The study found that the more years of trainingpeople had, the more_________ (62) they were to the sound and rhythm of themusic. Those who were Involved in musical activities were the same people inwhom the ________ (63) of sensory events was the strongest. It shows theimportance of musical training to children with learning ________(64).She saysusing music to improve listening skills could mean they _________ (65) sentencesand understand facial expressions better .
51. A. unique B. different C. same D. strange
52. A. help B. tell C. remind D .entertain
53. A. shapes B. involves C .relates D. enhances
54. A. form B. step C. point D. process
55. A. play B. sing C. speak D. think
56. A. pass B. use C. look D. put
57. A. develops B. controls C. assesses D. observes
58. A. So B. Moreover C. As D. But
59. A. instruments B. ability C. types D. contact
60. A. physical B. musical C. speech D. brain
61. A. as B. of C. to D. at
62. A. familiar B. inactive C. critical D. sensitive
63. A. reduction B. improvement C. interference D. implication
64. A. styles B. disabilities C. interests D. approaches
65. A. read B. write C. hear D. change